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Academic Year:

7th Seminar: Charalambos Gasparis Lecture "Οι επαγγελματίες της μεσαιωνικής Κρήτης: Εξειδίκευση και απασχόληση"
Gasparis Charalambos (National Hellenic Research Foundation)
Nikos Karapidakis (Ionian University)


Αν και η οργάνωση της Κρήτης μετά την κατάκτησή της από τη Βενετία στις αρχές του 13ου αι. στηρίχτηκε κατ’ εξοχήν στη γη και την εκμετάλλευσή της, ωστόσο η μεγάλη τομή για το νησί υπήρξε η ανάπτυξη των πόλεων και της αστικής οικονομικής δραστηριότητας ήδη κατά το πρώτο μισό του ίδιου αιώνα.

Από τα έγγραφα της εποχής αντιλαμβάνεται κανείς πολύ εύκολα τον μεγάλο αριθμό επαγγελματιών στον Χάνδακα, το εύρος της επαγγελματικής εξειδίκευσης, τους τρόπους με τους οποίους καθόριζαν την επαγγελματική τους σχέση με τον πελάτη, την αμοιβή τους, τις ιδιαίτερες μεθόδους κάθε επαγγέλματος, το χρόνο που απαιτούνταν για την ολοκλήρωση κάποιων εργασιών, τα πρωτεύοντα για την εποχή και το χώρο επαγγέλματα, τις εργασίες που είχαν περισσότερη ζήτηση, το χώρο στον οποίο κινούνταν οι επαγγελματίες (αστικός – αγροτικός), την εθνότητα και το φύλο τους, την οικογενειακή παράδοση, ακόμη τη σχέση με τους μαθητευόμενους που έμπαιναν στο εργαστήριο και την υπηρεσία τους, τις υποχρεώσεις μαθητή και δάσκαλου-τεχνίτη, τη διάρκεια της μαθητείας και άλλες πολλές επιμέρους πληροφορίες.

Το πλήθος των επαγγελματιών αυτών που δραστηριοποιούνταν στον Χάνδακα, και σε διαφορετικό βαθμό στις άλλες πόλεις της Κρήτης, καθώς και στα χωριά του νησιού, μάς κάνει να αναρωτηθούμε αν όλοι αυτοί οι επαγγελματίες ήταν «πλήρους απασχόλησης» ή όχι, αν δηλαδή ασκώντας το επάγγελμά τους κάλυπταν όχι μόνο τον διαθέσιμο για εργασία χρόνο τους αλλά και τις βασικές τους οικονομικές ανάγκες, και αν λειτουργούσε ο ανταγωνισμός της αγοράς, και πώς αυτό αν ίσχυε επηρέαζε εντέλει την τοπική οικονομία.


Χρόνος και τόπος: Δευτέρα 14.5.2018, ώρα 16.00-19.00, στο Εθνικό Ίδρυμα Ερευνών (Βασ. Κωνσταντίνου 48, Αθήνα, ισόγειο, αίθ. συνεδριάσεων, στάση «ΕΙΕ» ή μετρό «Ευαγγελισμός»).

H είσοδος είναι ελεύθερη για το κοινό.

6th Seminar: Pınar Çakıroğlu, "Industrialisation in Rural Salonica towards the End of Ottoman Rule"
Çakıroğlu Pınar (Postdoc researcher, University of Crete)
Christine Agriantoni (University of Thessaly)


When the Ottoman Empire came to a formal end in 1923, this was not surprising for many as the final decades, indeed the final century, of its existence has been perceived in Europe as the decay of the ‘Sick Man’ to his foreseen end. Yet the academic perception of the Ottoman Empire has improved considerably in the near century since the dissolution of the Empire. Despite the fact that the Ottomans are not often associated with the dramatic developments that shaped Europe in the nineteenth century, fuller and more thorough analyses have shown that the Ottoman Empire did exhibit considerable economic dynamism toward its end.

The Ottomans had begun to engage in modernisation already from the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. By the time the Empire came to lose her European provinces, the rudiments of an industrial economy were discernible. This industrial dynamism towards its end, nevertheless, was not the result of a state-led investment, as one would expect from a highly-centralised Empire. In fact, much of the dynamism emerged due to industrial and commercial capitalism surging from its own domestic wellsprings.

Macedonia was at the forefront of these economic and social developments. For one thing, it had great strategic importance for the – rapidly shrinking – late Ottoman Empire. At the end of the nineteenth century, after substantial losses in the preceding decades, Macedonia was the main European territory of the Ottomans, with the exception of Thrace and the imperial capital, İstanbul. The port of Thessaloniki (Selanik) was the effective capital of Macedonia and a vital point of contact with the then dominant European economies.

This talk focuses on the industrial dynamism in the vilayet of Selanik that surged in the late nineteenth century with special reference to the hinterlands of the vilayet. More specifically, industrialization in the region of Naousa (Ağustos), Edhessa (Vodina), Veroia (Karaferye), which was at least equally significant as the industrialisation in the centre of Salonica, is the main focus. Industrial development in this region took off with the 1870s concentrating on textiles and was led by a group of Greek capitalists belonging to the powerful Christian Greek community of the region. Several peculiarities of the region were pivotal to the emergence and expansion of this industrialisation. In this talk, the story of the industrialisation in the region of Naousa (Ağustos), Edhessa (Vodina), Veroia (Karaferye) in terms of its roots and course as well as its contribution to the elucidation of the structure and characteristics of the late-Ottoman economy will be told.

Time and place: Monday 12.3. 2018, 16:00-19:00, National Hellenic Research Foundation (48, Vas. Konstantinou av., Athens, groundfloor), metro "Evangelismos" or bus station "NHRF".

5th Seminar: Andreas Kakridis, "Kyriakos Varvaressos: biography as economic history"
Kakridis Andreas (Bank of Greece)
Socrates Petmezas (University of Crete)


Kyriakos Varvaressos is one of the most interesting economists and economic policy-makers of 20th century Greece. A professor and member of the Academy of Athens, Finance Minister during the default of 1932, Deputy Governor and later Governor of the Bank of Greece (1933-46), cabinet member in Tsouderos’s government-in-exile (1941-43), Vice-President in the Voulgaris cabinet after the war (1945) and economic advisor to the Plastiras Government in 1952, when he wrote his famous Report on the Economic Problem of Greece, Varvaressos is present in every key economic development of his era. 
What is more, he took part in all major international economic meetings, from the 1919 Paris peace conference to the 1944 Bretton Woods conference. He negotiated Greek debt, Greece’s inter-war clearing arrangements, post-war aid and the architecture of international monetary relations. He gained a reputation for his intellectual acumen as a technocrat and his skill as a negotiator. In 1946, he capitalized on this reputation to become elected to the first Board of Directors of the World Bank, in Washington, where he remained until his death, in 1957.

Using the recent publication of the Varvaressos biography by the Bank of Greece as a springboard, the author shall present the findings of a research project that spanned many years and archives, aiming not only to trace the life of an economist but to interpret – through that very life – key events, policy dilemmas and economic decisions. Thus, the biography aims to complement, if not also to challenge, our understanding of important events in recent Greek economic history.

Time and place: Monday 26.2.2018, 16:00-19:00, National Hellenic Research Foundation (48, Vas. Konstantinou av., Athens, groundfloor), metro "Evangelismos" or bus station "NHRF".

4th Seminar: Juan Carmona Zabala, "Between Politics and Advertising: Promoting Greek Tobacco Exports in the Interwar Period"
Carmona Zabala Juan (PhD student University of California, San Diego - Center for Hellenic Studies)
Socrates Petmezas (University of Crete)


In this talk, I will discuss the promotion of tobacco, Greece’s most important export commodity in the interwar period. I will focus on how private and state actors interacted in carrying out a series of activities aimed at increasing the demand for Greek tobacco in foreign markets. Such activities include participating in trade fairs, facilitating the circulation of market information, and publishing articles in foreign periodicals.

I argue that, starting in the mid-1920s, the crisis of tobacco exports, the need to differentiate Greek tobacco from its competitors, and the importance of advertising in the cigarette industry led Greek tobacco merchants to turn to the state and ask for: a) sustained direct contact with consumers; b) the creation of a “Greek brand” with a series of attributes related to quality, and c) the reduction of information costs for exporters. The implementation of these policies caused market information to become a common good, and the emergence of the promotion of Greek products as a new area of economic activity.

Time and place: Monday 12.2.2017, 16:00-19:00, National Hellenic Research Foundation (48, Vas. Konstantinou av., Athens, groundfloor), metro "Evangelismos" or bus station "NHRF".

3rd Seminar: Eleftheria Zei, "Εμφυτεύσεις και κοινωνικοί μετασχηματισμοί στις Κυκλάδες, 17ος-18ος αιώνας"
Zei Eleftheria (University of Crete)
Nikos Karapidakis (Ionian University)

Time and place: Monday 18.12.2017, 16:00-19:00, National Hellenic Research Foundation (48, Vas. Konstantinou av., Athens, groundfloor), metro "Evangelismos" or bus station "NHRF".

2nd Seminar: Constantine Ardeleanu, "Technology Transfer, Transnational Bureaucracy, and the Making of a Security Regime in the Danube Delta (19th-20th Centuries)"
Ardeleanu Constantine (University of Galati & New Europe College, Institute for Advanced Study, Bucharest)
Dimitris Kontogeorgis (Hellenic Open University, Ionian University)


This paper focuses on the development of Danubian trade and shipping after the establishment of the European Commission of the Danube in 1856, by the decision of the Treaty of Paris. This international institution underwent an impressive technical and administrative program that contributed to the transformation of the Lower Danube into a secure and prosperous transportation corridor. The Greek seafarers were the most important actors of Danubian navigation. On the basis of the archives of the Danube Commission, this paper aims to refer to the fields in which navigation was modernized, using statistical data to exemplify the transition from sail to steam and how the engineers coped with the ever-larger tonnage of the vessels plying on the Lower Danube.

The seminar is co-organised in collaboration with the Postgraduate Studies Programme in Modern History, Department of Political Science and History, Panteion University. The Seminar will be held in English.

Time and place: Monday 30.10.2017, 16:00-19:00, National Hellenic Research Foundation (48, Vas. Konstantinou av., Athens, groundfloor), metro "Evangelismos" or bus station "NHRF".

1st Seminar: Angelos Dalachanis, "Entre la petite et la grande histoire, Des employés Grecs dans la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez"
Dalachanis Angelos (EFA)
Sofia Avgerinou-Kolonia (Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Athènes ), Leda Papastefanaki (Université d’Ioannina)


Quels sont les critères avec lesquels l’employé d’une compagnie au personnel multiethnique prend des décisions lorsque celle-ci se trouve au centre de transformations géopolitiques majeures qui impliquent à la fois son pays d’accueil et celui d’origine ? Priorise t-il des intérêts personnels, familiaux, nationaux ou ceux de sa compagnie ? Les Archives nationales du monde du travail conservent des documents administratifs et des lettres de dossiers individuels des employés Grecs de la compagnie du canal de Suez. Ces dossiers nous permettent d’explorer la vie personnelle, professionnelle et familiale de ces Grecs d’Egypte, en particulier lorsqu’ils se trouvent à l’épicentre d’évènements de portée globale, avec la nationalisation de la compagnie et la crise de Suez en 1956. La relation étroite entre la petite et la grande histoire permet de mieux saisir les liens tissés entre le pays d’origine et celui d’accueil, ainsi que ceux-ci avec une compagnie universelle, dont la fondation en 1869 a durablement changé la façon de voyager et de commercer.

Lundi 9.10.2017, 16:00-19:00

Fondation Nationale Hellénique de la Recherche (48, Av. Konstantinou, Athènes, 5eme étage, grande salle de l’Institut des Recherches Historiques, no 524)


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